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  • A GEOGRAPHICAL PRESENT; by VENNING, Mary Anne.
    VENNING, Mary Anne.
    A GEOGRAPHICAL PRESENT; being descriptions of the principal countries of the world. With representations of the various Inhabitants in their respective costumes, beautifully coloured. Third Edition. London: Printed for Harvey and Darton, Gracechurch-Street.

    1820. 12mo, pp. 144; with 60 charming engraved plates of costumes, hand-coloured; lacking front free endpaper; some light marginal browning and occasional light foxing and soiling, one plate with small nick in fore-edge, otherwise clean and crisp; with contemporary ownership signature on recto of frontispiece dated 1849; later 19th century binding by Bayntun’s of Bath, in full red morocco, with gilt floral border, spine in compartments with raised bands, lettered and tooled in gilt, all edges gilt, head and tail of spine and joints rubbed; with small ownership label on rear pastedown ‘AHA’. An attractive hand-coloured copy, and in a later Bayntun binding, of the third edition (first 1817), of this the most successful geographical primer by Mary Anne Venning.…

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    1820. 12mo, pp. 144; with 60 charming engraved plates of costumes, hand-coloured; lacking front free endpaper; some light marginal browning and occasional light foxing and soiling, one plate with small nick in fore-edge, otherwise clean and crisp; with contemporary ownership signature on recto of frontispiece dated 1849; later 19th century binding by Bayntun’s of Bath, in full red morocco, with gilt floral border, spine in compartments with raised bands, lettered and tooled in gilt, all edges gilt, head and tail of spine and joints rubbed; with small ownership label on rear pastedown ‘AHA’. An attractive hand-coloured copy, and in a later Bayntun binding, of the third edition (first 1817), of this the most successful geographical primer by Mary Anne Venning. The work ‘skilfully blends quantitative statistics about manufactures and major rivers with qualitative judgements about national greatness. This combination propelled the text into two more editions in 1818 and 1820, and it was later published in America (in 1829, 1830, and 1831) as three separate volumes on Europe, Asia, and Africa by children’s publisher William Burgess... Venning’s ideas had a broad circulation, launching her career as a scientific writer and establishing her authority as an educator of the young’ (Norcia, p. 34).

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    Bibliography: Darton: G975 (3); Lipperheide, 480; Osborne, I, p. 193 (first edition); see Megan Norcia, X Marks the Spot: Women Writers Map the Empire for British Children, 1790-1895 ff. 33 for a detailed discussion of the work

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  • Important early 13th century Chinese Forensic Medicine disseminated to the West
    GERICHTLICHE MEDIZIN DER CHINESEN by WANG-IN-HOAI, C.F.M. de GRIJS, and Henry BREITENSTEIN (translator).
    WANG-IN-HOAI, C.F.M. de GRIJS, and Henry BREITENSTEIN (translator).
    GERICHTLICHE MEDIZIN DER CHINESEN von Wang-in-Hoai. Nach der holländischen Übersetzung des Herrn C. F. M. de Grys herausgegeben von Dr. H. Breitenstein (Verfassser des werkes ‘21 Jahre in Indien’. Leipzig, Th. Grieben’s Verlag (L. Fernau).

    1908. 8vo, pp. viii, 174, [2] advertisement and blank; some very occasional light marginal browning, gutter cracked t p. 81 and 113 but holding firm; uncut in the original brown printed card wrappers, old tape repair to front inside cover, head of spine cracked and nicked with evidence of old repair, a couple of small marginal nicks, covers a little creased. First German edition. A fascination example of how noted and pioneering Chinese medical texts were gradually disseminated for a European audience. The present work by the noted military physician Dr Henry Breitenstein (1848-1930), is a translation of a Dutch work of 1863 by the renowned diplomat, pharmacologist, and sinologist Dr. C. F. M. de Grijs (or de Grys -…

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    1908. 8vo, pp. viii, 174, [2] advertisement and blank; some very occasional light marginal browning, gutter cracked t p. 81 and 113 but holding firm; uncut in the original brown printed card wrappers, old tape repair to front inside cover, head of spine cracked and nicked with evidence of old repair, a couple of small marginal nicks, covers a little creased. First German edition. A fascination example of how noted and pioneering Chinese medical texts were gradually disseminated for a European audience. The present work by the noted military physician Dr Henry Breitenstein (1848-1930), is a translation of a Dutch work of 1863 by the renowned diplomat, pharmacologist, and sinologist Dr. C. F. M. de Grijs (or de Grys - 1832-1902).
    Though now somewhat forgotten, de Grijs had sailed to China in 1857 on a consular mission, assigned with the task of collecting and identifying Chinese flora and fauna in the Amoy region. Many of his papers are now preserved at Leiden University, and he contributed a number of scientific and botanical papers, including articles on Chinese dyes, and publishing an early and important Dutch-Chinese dictionary.
    One of his most important contributions, however, was his 1863 translation of the Xiyuan Lu (or Se yuen luh), an early handbook on forensic medicine dating from the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), 300 years before anything comparable appeared in Europe, according to de Grijs in his introduction. First published in around 1247, it was reprinted in the 15th century and from that time came into general use in the courts of justice as a guide to the duties of coroner, and thus forms an interesting and early record of the theoretical condition of jurisprudence at that time. De Grijs’ translation was published by the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences in 1863 as Geregtelijke geneeskund, uit het Chineesch vertaald (Forensic Medicine, translated from the Chinese). ‘De Grijs used an edition from 1830 with the title Xiyuan lu jizheng huizuan... In his introduction, De Grijs wrote: “This work is written in a clear style and the main difficulty in translating is to find European synonyms for the Chinese names of plants, animals, stones, medicines, parts of the body, etc.“. He then gave a list of European and Chinese works he had consulted ending: “To what extent I have succeeded in finding the correct European names is up to experts to judge”’ (Kuiper, p 192). A number of consistent misspellings were made however, apparently due to misinterpretations of De Grijs’ handwriting. Dr Henry Breitenstein, himself a military physician, here presents a German translation of that work of 1863, making no corrections, but with the addition of a number of notes. Of interest, Kuiper suggests that Breitenstein felt the work to be of more importance as a guide to Chinese manners and customs, than as a technical handbook of forensic medicine. Modern scholars, however, have come to highly appreciate the handbook. An English translation was first made in 1855 by William Harland and published in Hong Kong as ‘Records of the Washing away of Injuries’. A scholarly edition was published in 1981 by Brian E. McKnight.

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    Bibliography: See Wylie - Notes on Chinese Literature, Introduction no. 70. and p. 75; Kuiper, The Early Dutch Sinologists (1854-1900), pp. 192-3; Otterspeer, Leiden Oriental Connections: 1850-1940, p. 343; see Brian McKnight, The Washing Away of Wrongs, Forensic Medicine in Thirteenth Century China, Science, Medicine & Technology in East Asia, 1 (Ann Arbor.. 1980).

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  • Innovative and compact merging of word and image offering an unprecedented vision of the human body
    THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY by WATERSTON, David and Edward BURNET.
    WATERSTON, David and Edward BURNET.
    THE EDINBURGH STEREOSCOPIC ATLAS OF ANATOMY New Edition. Section I Abdomen. Contents 50 Plates. [- Section V Lower Limbs]. [Copyright T. C. & E. Jack, Edinburgh, & 34 Henrietta Street, London. W.C.] [n.d. but ca.

    1907.]. Together five boxes, Sections I-V, 240 x 190 x 80mm, and with the accompanying wooden and metal viewer; I. Abdomen containing 50 thick cards with mounted stereographs on each; II. Perimeum, Pelvis, and Thorax, containing 50 thick cards with mounted stereographs on each, box without the internal cloth tie; III. Thorax, containing 52 thick cards with mounted stereographs (Axilla no 1 stained); IV. Central nervous System, containing 52 thick cards with mounted stereographs (a couple or cards with ink underlining); V. Lower Limb, containing 46 thick cards with mounted stereographs; in all, 250 cards; cards all a little browned and lightly foxed, but otherwise good, stereographs all good; in the original dark pink cloth boxes, all five with title…

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    1907.]. Together five boxes, Sections I-V, 240 x 190 x 80mm, and with the accompanying wooden and metal viewer; I. Abdomen containing 50 thick cards with mounted stereographs on each; II. Perimeum, Pelvis, and Thorax, containing 50 thick cards with mounted stereographs on each, box without the internal cloth tie; III. Thorax, containing 52 thick cards with mounted stereographs (Axilla no 1 stained); IV. Central nervous System, containing 52 thick cards with mounted stereographs (a couple or cards with ink underlining); V. Lower Limb, containing 46 thick cards with mounted stereographs; in all, 250 cards; cards all a little browned and lightly foxed, but otherwise good, stereographs all good; in the original dark pink cloth boxes, all five with title and explanatory labels on fore-edges (labels are somewhat browned, scuffed and faded in places), all five boxes somewhat faded, frayed and worn, with some splitting to joints, Box 3 most noticeably worn; some wear evident on viewer. ‘New edition’ of this remarkable, graphic, and at times gruesome pathological atlas of anatomy prepared under the auspices of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh, and of particular appeal in retaining the original wooden and metal stereoscopic viewer, most often now missing. The five ‘volumes’ of boxed illustrations (resembling books with spine titles and designed to fit library shelves), contain some 250 thick cards each mounted with stereoscopic images together with accompanying explanatory text, and provide a vivid, realistic and unprecedented three dimensional view of the entire human body, helping students to gain important insights into the structure and spaces of the body.
    The invention of photography had a big impact on anatomical teaching, but, like drawings, was limited by being a two dimensional representation. Stereoscopy in fact predates photography, but its mass appeal depended entirely upon the development of photographic processes. Originally little more than an optical toy, once it was amalgamated with photography it became a uniquely powerful medium. ‘Stereo photography combined the work of two Victorian inventors, Sir Charles Wheatsone and Sir David Brewster, who used photography to popularise their discoveries. Stereo negatives when exposed in a camera produced two almost identical photographs which were then placed in a viewer that enabled them to be seen three dimensionally’ (Powerhouse Museum). Stereographs, double images (taken from positions equivalent to those of the left and right eyes) presented side-by-side on a flat card and looked at through a special viewer, were displayed to great effect at the Great Exhibition in 1851, and quickly became something of a phenomenon. Initially largely for domestic use, the educational opportunities, especially for the medical profession, were soon recognised. Improved photographic technology in the second half of the 19th century further simplified the production of stereographs. The first first atlas of medicine was produced by Albert Neisser (1855-1916), who between 1894 and 1911 produced 57 boxed sets.
    The date of the original edition of The Edinburgh Stereoscopic Atlas of Anatomy is unclear though is believed to be around 1905-1906 (based on contemporary reviews, although Roberta McGrath in ‘Seeing Her Sex’ p. 144 suggests 1890), with this, the ‘New Edition’ thought to date from 1907. David Waterston, was a lecturer and senior demonstrator at the Anatomical Department of Edinburgh and prepared the anatomical dissections. The first edition was issued by the Caxton Publishing Company. Over time, it was expanded to ten volumes, that included 324 stereographs, with issues also produced in the US and Canada. An equally graphic ‘Edinburgh Stereoscopic Atlas of Obstetrics’ was issued in 1908-1909, edited by George Simpson and Edward Burnet.

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