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  • Unusual ‘King’s Portrait’ Calendar Medal
    A CALENDAR 1833 by [POCKET PERPETUAL CALENDAR.]
    [POCKET PERPETUAL CALENDAR.]
    A CALENDAR 1833 Sunday Figures... [unsigned, with no maker of place of issue, though possibly Birmingham, by Thomas Halliday.]

    1833. Single year brass calendar medal, 39 mm in diametre, with central shield shaped calendar table of Sundays in each month, with Dominical Letter and surrounding inscriptions giving date of calendar, law terms and date and time of eclipses, with on the obverse a central portrait of George IV surrounded by concentric panels giving principle feasts days of the year and noting new and full moons; a little burnished with some small areas of staining. A nice, bright example, though unsigned, of a pocket calendar medal, of particular appeal featuring as it does the portrait of William IV. Such pocket aide-mémoires found widespread popularity during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, with noted makers such as John Powell and…

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    1833. Single year brass calendar medal, 39 mm in diametre, with central shield shaped calendar table of Sundays in each month, with Dominical Letter and surrounding inscriptions giving date of calendar, law terms and date and time of eclipses, with on the obverse a central portrait of George IV surrounded by concentric panels giving principle feasts days of the year and noting new and full moons; a little burnished with some small areas of staining. A nice, bright example, though unsigned, of a pocket calendar medal, of particular appeal featuring as it does the portrait of William IV. Such pocket aide-mémoires found widespread popularity during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, with noted makers such as John Powell and Peter Kempson (1755-1824), both originally button-makers from Birmingham, amongst the most prolific coin and token manufacturers. Neither ever featured a monarch’s portrait however, making the present example more unusual.
    The obverse provides the calendar table, as well as noting both sun and moon eclipses, and noting the law terms: Hillary Term Jan 11 to Jan 31; Easter Apr. 15 to May 8; Trinity May 22 to June 12; Michls Nov 2 to Nov 25.
    The obverse features a bust facing right of Willian IV ‘King of Great Brit.’ and is surounded with three concentric circles noting the main feast days of the year, and noting the New and Full moons.
    Coin auctions point to this being possibly the work of Halliday (1771-1844), and though we have not been able to compare visually, the present examples certainly bears strong similarities to examples by him held at the British Museum. ‘Medallist, token-engraver, manufacturer of buttons, studs, Halliday originally worked at Soho Mint before setting up own business, first at Islington Row and Ann Street, then at 69 Newhall Street for some 30 years until his death. He is considered to have produced some of the best commemorative medals of national and personal events, including Reform, Anti-Slavery and Public Institution medals. ‘With Thomas Halliday, the design of the calendar medal, basically unaltered since 1742, underwent a considerable change. The square calendar table on the obverse becomes shield-shaped with the law terms arranged along edge and the lunar table and the memorable dates alongside it are replaced by a circular arrangement. For the first time a portrait bust of the British monarch appears in the centre on the reverse, firstly of George IV and from 1830 of William IV’ ‘Silke Ackermann, Maths and Memory, Calendar Medals in the British Museum, Part I, The Medal, no. 45, Autumn 2004, p. 41.

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    Bibliography: Cf https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/C_1922-0407-374

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  • Furniture to grace the most fashionable boudoirs
    ALBUM DE L'EXPOSITION 1849. AMEUBLEMENS by JANSEN Michel and Desiré GUILMART.
    JANSEN Michel and Desiré GUILMART.
    ALBUM DE L'EXPOSITION 1849. AMEUBLEMENS Publié par M. Jansen Boulevard, Beaumarchaid No 14 et D. Guilmard, 2, rue de Lancry. Paris, [n.d. but

    1850.]. Oblong folio, pp. [ii] elaborately engraved title-page, and 30 vibrant lithograph plates finished by hand; plate 26 detached and plate 29 loose, some light foxing and soiling throughout, and with evidence of dampstaining at gutters sporadically throughout, images generally clean and bright though with a few abrasions in places; contemporary sheep-backed red embossed paper boards, with red paper label lettered in gilt on upper cover (chipped with some loss), head of spine chipped with loss, tail of spine nicked and worn, rear joint cracked but holding though rear inner hinge therefore weak, boards somewhat scratched, scuffed and soiled with some loss of paper, extremities rubbed and worn; despite wear, still a striking and scarce album. A wonderful and rare…

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    1850.]. Oblong folio, pp. [ii] elaborately engraved title-page, and 30 vibrant lithograph plates finished by hand; plate 26 detached and plate 29 loose, some light foxing and soiling throughout, and with evidence of dampstaining at gutters sporadically throughout, images generally clean and bright though with a few abrasions in places; contemporary sheep-backed red embossed paper boards, with red paper label lettered in gilt on upper cover (chipped with some loss), head of spine chipped with loss, tail of spine nicked and worn, rear joint cracked but holding though rear inner hinge therefore weak, boards somewhat scratched, scuffed and soiled with some loss of paper, extremities rubbed and worn; despite wear, still a striking and scarce album. A wonderful and rare decorative arts album produced in celebration of the French Industrial Exhibition of 1849, comprised of thirty large coloured lithographic plates (divided into six fascicles), a number clearly finished by hand, depicting a selection of fine pieces of furniture made by some of the most noted makers of the day. As such it provides a fascinating glimpse into Parisian mid-19th century design trends and fashions, at the start of the Second Republic under the President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte (three years before he overthrew the Republic and proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III). A wide range of items are vibrantly depicted which would have graced the finest salons and boudoirs, including fabric drapes for four poster beds by Krieger, armchairs, sideboards and marbled-topped tables by Jeanselme, ornate mirrored armoires by Tetard and also by Richtaedt, billiard tables by Guilelouvette, and dining room sideboards by Charmois and Munz.
    Désiré Guilmard (1810-1885), began his career as an engineer-surveyor, though soon developed an interest in the decorative arts. In 1839 he founded the illustrated periodical ‘Le Garde-meuble ancien et moderne’, which specialized in ornament and furniture, the drawings being executed by Guilmard himself. A key figure in the Parisian design community he became an influential purveyor of taste for over fifty years, in a period of economic growth and changing tastes. In conjunction with the first Paris industrial exposition in 1844 Guilmard produced ‘Gare-Meuble, Album de l’exposition de l’industrie, 1844. Ameublemens’, exhibiting in 30 plates the work of some 250 cabinet makers and other artisans.
    The present album, whilst standing alone, appears to have been the first in a series published by Jansen and Guilmard for the 1849 exhibition. The album has the ‘No. 1’ on the printed label on the front cover, and the Victoria and Albert Universal Catalogue of Books on Art notes further volumes under the title ‘Le Guide du Fabricant de Meubles et du Décorateur’. Jansen is described on the title page of the seventh part as ‘Profr de Dessin, lithphe, ancien fabnt de meubles’. Only a handful of these albums are now located on OCLC, and we have so far found no copy of a complete run. The pair worked together to produce an album for the 1855 Universal Exhibition.

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    Bibliography: OCLC located only two examples at the University of Illinois and the British Library (listed under Michel Jansen); the Universal Catalogue of Books on Art: A to K (National Art Library Great Britain) p. 932; New York and Smithsonian have part 7 ‘dessiné en perspective et publié par M. Jansen’

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  • Building with granite as a way to prevent fires
    ANMÄRKNINGAR WID ITALIENSKA BYGGNADS SÄTTET, by [FIRE-PREVENTION.] [ANGERSTEIN, Reinhold.]
    [FIRE-PREVENTION.] [ANGERSTEIN, Reinhold.]
    ANMÄRKNINGAR WID ITALIENSKA BYGGNADS SÄTTET, til förekommande af eldswådor. [colophon:] Stockholm, Tryckt uti Kongl, Tryckeriet.

    1759. 4to, pp. [ii] engraved title-page, [iv], 52; with three folding engraved plates, and woodcut headpieces; paper a little browned throughout, with some occasional light foxing and soiling, a more prominent (though inoffensive) stain on p. 3; a good, crisp copy in modern dark brown sprinkled boards, with white label lettered in gilt, all edges gilt. First edition of this attractively produced ‘Remarks on the Italian building method for the prevention of fires’, the work of the Swedish metallurgist and civil servant Reinhold Angerstein (1718-1760). Written in response to a series of devastating fires in Stockholm, leading to calls for changes in building regulations, Angerstein looks in particular at alternative construction methods, focusing upon the use of different types of…

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    1759. 4to, pp. [ii] engraved title-page, [iv], 52; with three folding engraved plates, and woodcut headpieces; paper a little browned throughout, with some occasional light foxing and soiling, a more prominent (though inoffensive) stain on p. 3; a good, crisp copy in modern dark brown sprinkled boards, with white label lettered in gilt, all edges gilt. First edition of this attractively produced ‘Remarks on the Italian building method for the prevention of fires’, the work of the Swedish metallurgist and civil servant Reinhold Angerstein (1718-1760). Written in response to a series of devastating fires in Stockholm, leading to calls for changes in building regulations, Angerstein looks in particular at alternative construction methods, focusing upon the use of different types of stone, and in particular upon the use of granite. Angerstein argues that the stone is common in the mountains of Sweden, and that it would make economic sense, to use a local natural resource, which would also hopefully solve the issue of fire resistance. Hi notes that the art of working with grey stone had died out somewhat in Sweden, but hopes that it could be revived for Stockholm’s benefit - both architecturally and practically. The frontispiece title, after a drawing by Olof Årr, depicts a fire in Stockholm, surrounded by a border of fire-fighting equipment. The second plate illustrated different types of stone, with the final plate an elegant depiction of the Church of St. Peter in Rome and part of the Vatican.
    A member of an old family of Swedish Iron masters, Angerstein studied in Uppsala, and then worked as an auditor at the Swedish Board of Mines (the Bergskollegium). Financed by the Swedish Association of Iron Masters, he travelled extensively across Europe, and wrote a series of manuscript travel accounts, focusing in particular upon technical and economic observations from mining and iron and steel works. Apparently during a visit to England and Wales between 1753-1755 he was accused of being an industrial spy. On his return he was appointed Director of Steelworks at the Bergskollegium, and in 1757 he purchased the Vira Iron Works in Uppland. This appears to have been the only published work during his lifetime, though his travel diaries were translated and published in 2000. ‘His published journals show that he had a profound understanding of commerce as well as an ability to understand and record developments in technology. He appreciated the significance of the use of coke in blast furnaces, still practised in only a very small number of ironworks at the time of his visit to Britain, but he also showed an understanding of the diversity of the market for iron in England, and of the way in which niches in it could be filled by imports from Russia, Spain and the Netherlands, as well as from Sweden. He made valuable observations on textiles, mining, railways and river navigation. He was one of many Swedish iron masters who, through their travels, conveyed new thinking about technology and commerce, and left illuminating records of industry in other countries’ (https://www.erih.net/how-it-started/stories-about-people-biographies/biography/angerstein).

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    Bibliography: Josephson, Stadbyggnadskonst i Stockholm intill år 1800, p. 270; OCLC locates copies at the Getty, Yale, Columbia, the Royal Swedish Library, the Royal Danish Library.

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  • Commercial communication in the early 19th century
    ART DE LA CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALE, by [COMMERCE.]
    [COMMERCE.]
    ART DE LA CORRESPONDANCE COMMERCIALE, ou modèles de lettres pour toutes sortes d’opérations mercantiles, A l’usage des personnes qui se destinent au commerce. A Bordeaux, Chez P. Beaume, Imprimeur-Libraire, Allées de Tourny, no. 6. [with parallel Spanish title] Arte de la correspondencia comercial, o modelos de cartas para toda especie de operaciones mercantiles, para el uso de los que se destinan al comercio. Burdeos, En la Imprenta de D. Pedro Beaume...

    1814. 12mo, pp. 253; printed in parallel text in French and Spanish; with woodcut printer’s device on both title-pages; occasional light spotting and foxing, but otherwise clean and crisp, with discrete old paper repair to lower corner of p. 192; with contemporary ownership signature of ‘Fredrich Habicht, 1821’ on front free endpaper; in contemporary half-calf over blue marbled boards, with blue sprinkled edges, spine in compartments ruled in gilt, with yellow paper label lettered in gilt, (label a little chipped), joints and spine slightly rubbed, some scuffing with minor loss of paper on upper cover, extremities lightly bumped and worn; an appealing copy. First edition of this translation, and an uncommon bilingual guide to the art of commercial correspondence, with…

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    1814. 12mo, pp. 253; printed in parallel text in French and Spanish; with woodcut printer’s device on both title-pages; occasional light spotting and foxing, but otherwise clean and crisp, with discrete old paper repair to lower corner of p. 192; with contemporary ownership signature of ‘Fredrich Habicht, 1821’ on front free endpaper; in contemporary half-calf over blue marbled boards, with blue sprinkled edges, spine in compartments ruled in gilt, with yellow paper label lettered in gilt, (label a little chipped), joints and spine slightly rubbed, some scuffing with minor loss of paper on upper cover, extremities lightly bumped and worn; an appealing copy. First edition of this translation, and an uncommon bilingual guide to the art of commercial correspondence, with the numerous examples and templates given printed in both Spanish and French on facing pages.
    It is our understanding that the guide is a translation and revision of a work first issued in French and English as The Commercial Secretary, or a collection of commercial letters, invoices, accounts of sale, bills of lading and exchange etc, for the use of young gentlemen bred up to the trade/Le secrétaire du commerce ou recueil de lettres de commerce, published in Paris by Saintin in 1805, and which was illustrated with a number of numismatic plates. It appears to have gone through two editions in 1805, with a Bordeaux printing by Beaume as here in 1807 (not illustrated), and then an Italian/English edition printed by Gamba in Livorno in the same year as this French/Spanish iteration. The present translation follows closely that of the 1805 original, though has been revised and updated. It was further published in 1822 and 1824. It is perhaps no coincidence, that the publication of both this French and Spanish edition, and that of the one in English and Italian, appeared in the year which saw the end of the War of the Sixth Coalition and the defeat and deposition of Napoleon, with hopes, no doubt, of more stable and conducive trading conditions across Europe.
    This scarce works provides an insight into the flourishing colonial trade of the early 19th century. Whilst the various examples make no mention of the slave trade itself, the majority of the sample letters, invoices, bills of lading discuss the sale, purchase, and movement of raw and refined sugar, coffee, tobacco, cotton, cloth etc, between the East Indies (Java) and Caribbean (St Domingo) and the European cities of London, Amsterdam, Hamburg, Rostock and Cadiz. Several merchants, insurers, agents, and ship-owners are mentioned throughout the examples, though we have been unable to establish whether they are fictional or existing companies. Nevertheless, there are frequent references to Johann Wolff of Bremen, Johann Baller of Minden, James Phillips & Company of London, Peter Smith and Thomas Simpson of London, and Jan Veerding of Amsterdam. The samples also highlight the perils of global trade at the time, with several mentions to the ‘political’ situations, as well as to concerns about French privateers, ‘la crainte des corsaires français est tellesur cette place’ (lettre XXII, p. 61) which could lead to price rises.

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    Bibliography: See Goldsmiths'-Kress numbers 19069.2 for the 1805 English edition; Goldsmiths'-Kress library of economic literature ; no. 20978.1; all editions appear scarce, with the present title located at the New York Public Library, the University of London and the BnF.

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  • BESCHREIBUNG DES FÜNFTEN NERVENPAARES by BOCK, Carl August.
    BOCK, Carl August.
    BESCHREIBUNG DES FÜNFTEN NERVENPAARES und seiner verbindungen mit anderen Nerven, vorzüglich mit dem Gangliensysteme. Mit Kupfertafeln.- Meissen: bei Friedrich Wilhelm Goedsche, 1817. [together with]: NACHTRAG ZU DER BESCHREIBUNG DES FÜNFTEN HIRNNERVEN und seiner Verbindungen mit andern Nerven, vorzüglich mit dem Gangliensysteme. Mit Kupfertafeln. Meissen: bei Friedrich Wilhelm Goedsche,

    1821. Together two companion works, small folios; pp. xii, 90 with 5 engraved, partly coloured plates by J. F. Rosenmüller del. and J. F. Schröter, sculp., numbered Tab. I-III 3 with two plates in outline, Tab III misbound; pp. 15, [1] blank, with 4 engraved plates (two in outline and two hand-coloured), numbered IV-V, printed on differing paper stock and somewhat browned; small tear at tail of final leaf of first volume but with no loss, both volumes somewhat browned and foxed, and both text with marginal dampstaining, mainly affecting the fore-edge and tail, more prominent in the second work, though never touching either text and not affecting plates; contemporary half calf over brown marbled boards, retaining original silk marker,…

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    1821. Together two companion works, small folios; pp. xii, 90 with 5 engraved, partly coloured plates by J. F. Rosenmüller del. and J. F. Schröter, sculp., numbered Tab. I-III 3 with two plates in outline, Tab III misbound; pp. 15, [1] blank, with 4 engraved plates (two in outline and two hand-coloured), numbered IV-V, printed on differing paper stock and somewhat browned; small tear at tail of final leaf of first volume but with no loss, both volumes somewhat browned and foxed, and both text with marginal dampstaining, mainly affecting the fore-edge and tail, more prominent in the second work, though never touching either text and not affecting plates; contemporary half calf over brown marbled boards, retaining original silk marker, spine tooled in gilt with green morocco label, head and tail of spine nicked and worn with slight loss, joints rubbed and scuffed, with some white paint(?) staining touching label, covers scuffed, extremities bumped and corners bumped and worn; with book-plate on front paste-down, name partially obscured, but that of Cornelius Henricus À Roy, Doctor of Medicine (1750-1833). Rare first edition, complete in two parts and published over four years, of this finely illustrated treatise on the spinal nerves, which carry motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In this early and little known work by the Prosector of Leipzig University, August Carl Bock (1782 - 1833), the noted German anatomist illustrates his work with striking copper engraved plates, some of which are hand-coloured in red to highlight the arteries. The plates are the work of the renowned Leipzig engraver J. F. Schröter, and those in the first volume drawn by the Leipzig surgeon Johann Christian Rosenmüller (1771-1820), who had himself published in 1805-7 his own finely illustrated surgical atlas Chirurgische-Anatomische abbildungen für Ärzte und Wundärzte. Both Bock and Rosenmüller took great pride in combining the arts of painting and anatomy, their works being particularly noteworthy for clarity and detail.
    Bock was renowned as an excellent teacher of anatomy, able to provide clear representations of anatomical objects and preparations for his students, and indeed his anatomical preparations enriched the anatomical museum in Leipzig. This early work vividly conveys his great skill. He published a number of anatomical works, culminating in his large and noted atlas of 1833 Chirurgish-Anatomische Tafeln, which adopted the use of striking 'key-hole' cross sections, with various small portions of skin and muscles removed to enable the student to comprehend the complex layered nature of the human body.

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    Bibliography: OCLC locates copies at Yale, Harvard, Duke, the National Library of Medicine, Wisconsin, the College of Physicians, the New York Academy of Medicine and West Virginia.

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  • The work of an apprentice surveyor or engineer perhaps - with 25 pen and ink folding plates
    BOUND 18TH CENTURY MANUSCRIPT ‘TRAITÉ DE LA GÉOMÉTRIE PRATIQUE by [GEOMETRY.] [CHAMBAUD?] [MERCIER?]
    [GEOMETRY.] [CHAMBAUD?] [MERCIER?]
    BOUND 18TH CENTURY MANUSCRIPT ‘TRAITÉ DE LA GÉOMÉTRIE PRATIQUE et pratique du compas’. n.p., and n.d. but ca.

    1750. 4to; pp. [2], [2] title-page, 104, 95, 1-27, 38-52, 58-137; with hand-coloured title framed within armourial border, 25 throw out plates drawn in pen and ink and shaded, and numerous neatly drawn text figures and illustrations, some full-page and decorative, a number hand-coloured or shaded, and three mounted corrected images; penned in a single hand throughout; some occasional foxing and soiling, one or two small paper flaws, some edgewear to fore-edge of plates; final endpaper missing; bound in contemporary full calf, spine in compartments with raised bands, tooled in gilt, with evidence of previous lettering label, head of spine worn exposing headband, general light rubbing and scuffing to joints and covers, covers a little sprung, extremities and corners bumped…

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    1750. 4to; pp. [2], [2] title-page, 104, 95, 1-27, 38-52, 58-137; with hand-coloured title framed within armourial border, 25 throw out plates drawn in pen and ink and shaded, and numerous neatly drawn text figures and illustrations, some full-page and decorative, a number hand-coloured or shaded, and three mounted corrected images; penned in a single hand throughout; some occasional foxing and soiling, one or two small paper flaws, some edgewear to fore-edge of plates; final endpaper missing; bound in contemporary full calf, spine in compartments with raised bands, tooled in gilt, with evidence of previous lettering label, head of spine worn exposing headband, general light rubbing and scuffing to joints and covers, covers a little sprung, extremities and corners bumped and lightly worn. A most attractively compiled, and seemingly early to mid 18th century manuscript course on practical geometry. The name Chambaud appears on the first free endpaper, and with a further small signature of [?] Mercier found at the tail of the first page, though we have sadly been unable to discern the first name, but it could be Jean-Henri.
    The volume begins with an attractively hand-coloured title framed within an armourial border incorporating a crown, a battle-axe, and six flags adorned with a blue cross. The compiler concludes the volume with a further small armourial flourish. Very much a practical work, full of day to day problems and examples, though with some occasional more whimsical and artistic illustrated section dividers (including flowers, and flower arrangements), the volume has the air of having been compiled by a either a French gentleman under private tutorship, or perhaps that of a student/apprentice surveyor or engineer. The volume has been divided into three parts, dealing in turn with ‘a treaty of practical geometry and practice of the compass’; ‘practical geometry or the measurement of surfaces’; and concluding with fractions. The whole volume is most attractively illustrated, containing numerous geometric figures, both within the text, and then 25 throw-out plates bound at the end of the volume. The majority have been rendered in pen and wash, though several have been hand-coloured, notably those at the beginning or end of a chapter.
    As far as we can ascertain, there are no author citations within the manuscript, and so this does not appear to be a transcription of an already published work, and is very much practical rather than theoretical. Whilst the basic principles of geometry are outlined, and occasional remarks given, the focus is upon problems and examples to be solved, with no mention of theorems or corollaries. Having handled previous geometrical manuscripts, this does not feel, therefore as though it is following an academic course of instruction at a College.

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  • An early student of one of the first Veterinary schools in France
    BOUND 19TH MANUSCRIPT COURSE ‘ZOOLOGIE’ by [VETERINARY SCIENCE - ZOOLOGY.] BORROS, [Jean.]
    [VETERINARY SCIENCE - ZOOLOGY.] BORROS, [Jean.]
    BOUND 19TH MANUSCRIPT COURSE ‘ZOOLOGIE’ taken at the l’École Royale Véterinaire’ of Toulouse, signed by Jean Borros ‘eleve veterinaire’ and completed and dated 16 October,

    1831. 8vo; pp. [iv], 15, [1] blank, 15-473, 475 488, [9]; penned in a single hand throughout; dampstain affecting fore-edge from pp. 9-160 though never touching text, some occasional light foxed and soiling, a few corners a little creased, otherwise generally clean and bright; contemporary sheep-backed marbled boards, spine tooled and lettered in gilt, head of spine worn exposing headband, with loss at both upper joints, with further cracking and loss at tail of upper joint, covers scuffed and faded, extremities rubbed and somewhat worn. An extensive and neatly transcribed early 19th century manuscript course on zoology, the work of Jean Borros, whom we believe was a student at the recently opened Toulouse Veterinary School, thus providing an insight into…

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    1831. 8vo; pp. [iv], 15, [1] blank, 15-473, 475 488, [9]; penned in a single hand throughout; dampstain affecting fore-edge from pp. 9-160 though never touching text, some occasional light foxed and soiling, a few corners a little creased, otherwise generally clean and bright; contemporary sheep-backed marbled boards, spine tooled and lettered in gilt, head of spine worn exposing headband, with loss at both upper joints, with further cracking and loss at tail of upper joint, covers scuffed and faded, extremities rubbed and somewhat worn. An extensive and neatly transcribed early 19th century manuscript course on zoology, the work of Jean Borros, whom we believe was a student at the recently opened Toulouse Veterinary School, thus providing an insight into part of the required curriculum in the early days of the establishment. Densely penned in a tight, neat hand, Borros has signed his name on the first leaf, below which is inscribed ‘eleve veterinaire’, and the manuscript is dated October 16th 1831 at its conclusion on p. 438. Purely zoological, the manuscript opens with a general introduction, before a section ‘Division du regne animal’ (pp. 42-143). The remaining portion of the manuscript comprises a ‘Tableau méthodique des mammifiéres’, subdivided into 8 orders (two-legged, four-legged, carnivores, rodents, toothless, pachyderms, ruminans and cetaceans) each order then further divided into subclasses and genre. Both domestic and exotic animals are covered, with details about characteristics and habitats described, with mammals such as kangaroos (p. 218) and buffalo and bison (p. 370-371), pangolins (260) and elephants (263) included.
    France was at the forefront of establishing veterinary medicine as a profession and Toulouse was the third dedicated veterinary school to open in France in 1825, following those of Lyon (1762) and Alfort near Paris in 1766, both founded by Claude Bourgelat (1712-1779). Up until 1761, veterinary ‘art’ was practised mostly by farriers and farmers, who were either self-taught or had moved through unregulated apprenticeships. Increasing livestock plagues at the beginning of the 18th century, however, were becoming so devastating that leading figures such as Pope Clement XI, commissioned reports into ways to address the situation. France was not immune to similar outbreaks and King Louis XV and his government was equally keen to bring an end to such epidemics, as well as seeking wider agricultural reforms. Bourgelat, Director of the Lyon Academy of Horsemanship, in his 1750 work Élémens d'hippiatrique ou nouveaux principes sur la connoissance et sur la médecine des chevaux, had already argued for the need of a veterinary school, and this hope became reality in 1762, having been giving a small grant by King Louis XV to established the Lyon school. The more rigourous, standardised scientific training, soon bore fruit, and within a short time diseases such as rinderpest were stayed. As a result Louis XV officially gave Lyon the title of Royal Veterinary School in 1764, with the Alfort school opening in the following year. These schools were the first real attempts to standardise veterinary practices and science, and Bourgelat is considered to be the father of modern veterinary science.
    Jean Borros is found in the Recueil de Médicine Vétérinaire pratique Journal in a list of veterinary graduates in 1834 (p. 440), and went on to practice in the Dordogne. This suggests that it was a four year course, and that this general introduction to zoology may well have been part of the first year curriculum.

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  • BOUND AND NEATLY TRANSCRIBED MANUSCRIPT NOTEBOOK, ‘COURS DE PHYSIQUE GÉNÉRALE’, by [ECOLE CENTRALE DE PARIS.] [DANIEL, Professor.]
    [ECOLE CENTRALE DE PARIS.] [DANIEL, Professor.]
    BOUND AND NEATLY TRANSCRIBED MANUSCRIPT NOTEBOOK, ‘COURS DE PHYSIQUE GÉNÉRALE’, penned in a single hand throughout, and containing the complete course. Paris,

    1875-1876. Bound lined paper notebook, 4to; pp. [2] tipped in printed sheet ‘Instruction sur la tenue des cahiers de notes et des cahiers de problèmes’, 42, [2], 43 - 249, [250- 256 blank], folding table mounted on p. 66; [2] tipped in printed sheet ‘Instruction sur la tenue des cahiers de notes et des cahiers de problèmes’, 257 - 323, 225 (pagination error) - 400, (leaf excised at p. 349 due to correction with no interruption of meaning), 341 (pagination error) - 345, [1] blank, [2] tipped in leaf ‘Instruction sur la tenue des cahiers de notes et des cahiers de problèmes’, 347 - 490, (p. 457 glued together), [491-495, blank], [96] blank; penned in a single neat hand with…

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    1875-1876. Bound lined paper notebook, 4to; pp. [2] tipped in printed sheet ‘Instruction sur la tenue des cahiers de notes et des cahiers de problèmes’, 42, [2], 43 - 249, [250- 256 blank], folding table mounted on p. 66; [2] tipped in printed sheet ‘Instruction sur la tenue des cahiers de notes et des cahiers de problèmes’, 257 - 323, 225 (pagination error) - 400, (leaf excised at p. 349 due to correction with no interruption of meaning), 341 (pagination error) - 345, [1] blank, [2] tipped in leaf ‘Instruction sur la tenue des cahiers de notes et des cahiers de problèmes’, 347 - 490, (p. 457 glued together), [491-495, blank], [96] blank; penned in a single neat hand with numerous pen and ink diagrams and illustrations, often found on verso facing page; some occasional foxing and soiling, but otherwise good; in contemporary sheep backed marbled boards, spine ruled in gilt, with two black morocco labels lettered in gilt, with the initials ‘V.G.’ in gilt at tail, and additional gilt volume number, tail of spine slightly nicked, some light scuffing to spine and covers, extremities a little bumped and worn, book-block a little shaken, but otherwise good. Extensive and neatly transcribed lecture notes for the course on general physics taught by Professor Daniel at the École Centrale de Paris, between November 1875 and June 1876, providing an insight into the curriculum of such courses, and the standards required. According to Guillet in ‘Cent ans de la vie de l'École Centrale des Arts et manufactures, 1829-1929’, Daniel was Chair of Physics from 1861-1881. This neat manuscript contains the entire course, and is composed of 25 lectures on heat, 21 on electricity, three on acoustics, and 11 lessons on optics. This course is very similar in structure to Daniel’s 1880 course described by Guillet, with a few variations. The notes have been richly illustrated with careful diagrams and explanatory drawings.
    The initials ‘V.G.’ are found on the spine of the volume, the signature ‘M. Gueldry’ can be found at the end of a number of sections, alongside the initials ‘S.M.’ This could perhaps have been another professor, or perhaps the leading student of the class. Previously handled technical drawing albums or ‘epures’ exhibit similar ‘sign offs’ as sections were completed successfully.

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  • ‘Unknown to the usual chemical historians’ and modelled on Algarotti
    CARTAS FISICO-QUIMICAS by [COMPAGNONI, Guiseppe].
    [COMPAGNONI, Guiseppe].
    CARTAS FISICO-QUIMICAS Escritas en Italian por el Señor Compagnoni y traducidas al castellano por Don Josef Antonio Sabater y Anglada. Tomo primero - [segundo]. Barcelona, En la Oficina de Pablo Nadal. Con Licencia.

    1802. Two volumes, small 8vo; pp. xxiv, 383, [i] errata; vii, [i] blank, 370, [1] errata, [5] blank; some occasional light foxing, a little more prominent in places, but otherwise clean and crisp; in contemporary mottled Spanish sheep, spines ruled in gilt with red and black lettering and numbering labels, with attractive decorative endpapers (upper joint for first flyleaf split but holding firm), head and tail of spines lightly worn with small nick at head of Vol I, and small wormhole touching lettering label, small wormhole in rear joint of Vol. II, joints and extremities lightly rubbed; an appealing copy. First Spanish edition (first Italian 1796) of this scarce introduction to chemistry for ladies, by Guiseppe Compagnoni (1754-1833). The popularity…

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    1802. Two volumes, small 8vo; pp. xxiv, 383, [i] errata; vii, [i] blank, 370, [1] errata, [5] blank; some occasional light foxing, a little more prominent in places, but otherwise clean and crisp; in contemporary mottled Spanish sheep, spines ruled in gilt with red and black lettering and numbering labels, with attractive decorative endpapers (upper joint for first flyleaf split but holding firm), head and tail of spines lightly worn with small nick at head of Vol I, and small wormhole touching lettering label, small wormhole in rear joint of Vol. II, joints and extremities lightly rubbed; an appealing copy. First Spanish edition (first Italian 1796) of this scarce introduction to chemistry for ladies, by Guiseppe Compagnoni (1754-1833). The popularity of books such as Francesco Algarotti's ‘Newtonianismo per le dame’ spawned a genre of similar works of which the present work by Compagnoni is ‘an excellent textbook for women readers, based on the new chemistry of Lavoisier as enunciated in the Fondamenti della Scienza Fisico-Chimica of Vincenzo Dandolo. Presented in a series of 101 letters, this work covers the history of chemistry, elements and compounds, attraction, affinity, caloric, fire and light, the phlogistic versus the new chemistry, gases, combustion, acids and alkalis, salts, the old and new nomenclature, minerals etc. Pages 147-237 of Vol II entitled Lettere Aerologiche, discuses the physical and chemical properties of the atmosphere and various gases, with references to ballooning by the Montgolfier brothers’ (Neville I, p. 287).
    ‘Compagnoni created the last of a number of fictional women whose questions about scientific learning facilitated the popularization of new doctrines in the early modern period. His Chemistry for Ladies (1796), explicitly modelled upon Francesco Algarotti’s Newtonianism for Ladies (1737) rather than Marie Meurdrac’s Chemistry made easy for Ladies (1666), began as a series of letters between himself and Countess Marianna Rossi of Ferrara on the ideas of Lavoisier. Expressing scepticism over a woman’s desire to learn a subject as dry and difficult as chemistry, Compagnoni is reassured by the countess that she indeed wishes to be initiated into the mysteries of Lavoisier’s new language because chemistry ‘by now has become the fashionable science’ (Findlen, Translating the New Science).
    Neville considers the first edition to be very rare, with Bolton’s first supplement p. 131 referring only to the second edition, and Duveen citing the present rare Spanish translation.

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    Bibliography: Blake, 96; Cole 291 (first edition); Duveen 142 (this edition); Wellcome II, 379; Neville I, p. 287; OCLC: 17597388 locates copies at Chicago, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, with a small number of European locations.

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  • ‘My first supplies equality, my second inferiority, and my whole superiority’
    CHARMING HANDMADE PARLOUR GAME by [PARLOUR GAME.] [ANON.]
    [PARLOUR GAME.] [ANON.]
    CHARMING HANDMADE PARLOUR GAME consisting of nine oval die-cut ‘lace’ cards, upon which have been neatly penned 18 riddles. n.p. but English, and n.d. but ca.

    1820-30. Series of nine oval die-cut ‘lace’ cards, 64 x 88mm, alternately cream and blue, tied together with blue silk, with 18 riddles neatly penned in a single hand (1-9 on recto, 10-18 on verso); some occasional light foxing and soiling, but otherwise clean and bright; now housed within custom made box. A charming, seemingly late Regency or early Victorian handmade parlour game, consisting of a series of 18 quite fiendish enigmas, charades and riddles - sadly without the answers - though attesting to the popularity of such games during the 19th century! Neatly written on nine oval die-cut cards, redolent of papers which became synonymous with Victorian Valentine’s Day card, this attractively produced set may perhaps have been given…

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    1820-30. Series of nine oval die-cut ‘lace’ cards, 64 x 88mm, alternately cream and blue, tied together with blue silk, with 18 riddles neatly penned in a single hand (1-9 on recto, 10-18 on verso); some occasional light foxing and soiling, but otherwise clean and bright; now housed within custom made box. A charming, seemingly late Regency or early Victorian handmade parlour game, consisting of a series of 18 quite fiendish enigmas, charades and riddles - sadly without the answers - though attesting to the popularity of such games during the 19th century! Neatly written on nine oval die-cut cards, redolent of papers which became synonymous with Victorian Valentine’s Day card, this attractively produced set may perhaps have been given as a love token, although none of the riddles are on the theme of love. The riddles are as follows:
    1. ‘Why is the famous Mr McAdam like one of the seven wonders of the World’; 2. ‘What colour are the winds and storms?’; 3. ‘My first is a prop, my second is a prop and my third is a prop’; 4. ‘My first I do, my second I do not and my third is what you are’; 5. ‘My first is a story, my second a story and my whole are(?) number of innocence’; 6. ‘Spell the archipelago in three letters’; 7. ‘My first supplies equality, my second inferiority, and my whole superiority’; 8. ‘Why are a pair of skates like an apple’; 9. ‘Why are fixed(?) stars like pen ink and paper?’; 10. ‘Name me and you break me?’; 11. ‘What word of ten letters can be spelt with five?’; 12. ‘Take a noun of plural number, to it add the letter ‘S’, plural’s plural now no more, sweet’s what bitter was before’; 13. ‘A letter in the Dutch alphabet named makes a lady of the third rank’; 14. ‘Why is grass like a mouse?’; 15. ‘If a pair of spectacles could speak, what ancient historian would they name?’; 16. ‘What sea would make a good sleeping room?’; 17. ‘What is majesty without it’s extremes?’; and finally 18. ‘My first is a proposition, my second is a composition and my third an acquisition’ (the answer we have worked out is fortune).
    McAdam (1756-1836) became famous in the 1820s, question 1 being written in the present tense suggests the date of composition to be before his death in 1836.

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  • Early ID badge employing physiognomical features
    'CHIFFONNIER' WORKER'S BRASS REGISTRATION BADGE, by [PHYSIOGNOMY.]
    [PHYSIOGNOMY.]
    'CHIFFONNIER' WORKER'S BRASS REGISTRATION BADGE, numbered 6086, for a certain ‘A. Vallet, Chiffonier’, describing his physiognomy in abbreviated code, dated

    1855. Small oval brass pendant badge, 70 x 46 x 2mm; with suspension ring in upper part, engraved on both reverse and obverse, some light surface scuffing and tarnishing, but otherwise very good. A remarkable survivor of a ragpicker’s registration badge, which through the use of an abbreviated code, provides a surprisingly complete description of recognizable features, given the small surface area for engraving.
    On the reverse is engraved the badge number, name and profession. ‘A. Vallet, Chiffonier’. The obverse reveals the date, ‘1855’ followed by what appears at first sight to be a cryptic code: ‘69 ans, 1m. 63, ch. et s. gs, fr. ht. y. rx. n. g’os, bo. g’de. m.r’d. ba. g’se, v. ov, 4 doigts à…

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    1855. Small oval brass pendant badge, 70 x 46 x 2mm; with suspension ring in upper part, engraved on both reverse and obverse, some light surface scuffing and tarnishing, but otherwise very good. A remarkable survivor of a ragpicker’s registration badge, which through the use of an abbreviated code, provides a surprisingly complete description of recognizable features, given the small surface area for engraving.
    On the reverse is engraved the badge number, name and profession. ‘A. Vallet, Chiffonier’. The obverse reveals the date, ‘1855’ followed by what appears at first sight to be a cryptic code: ‘69 ans, 1m. 63, ch. et s. gs, fr. ht. y. rx. n. g’os, bo. g’de. m.r’d. ba. g’se, v. ov, 4 doigts à chaque m’in’.
    Thanks to the work of the previous owner, our understanding is that these abbreviations in all likelihood can be read as: ‘69 ans, 1m. 63, ch. et s. gs (presumably cheveux et sourcils gris), fr. ht. y. rx. n. g’os (assumed front haut, yeux roux, nez gros), bo. g’de. m.r’d. ba. g’se. (presumed bouche grande, menton rond, barbe grise), v. ov. (visage oval), 4 doigts à chaque m’in’ (four fingers on each hand). Thus ‘A. Vallet’ was 163 centimetre tall, 69 years old, with gray hair and eyebrows, had a high forehead, reddish brown eyes, large nose, large mouth, round chin, gray beard and oval face. Most notably, he had only four fingers on each hand.
    The Musée Carnavalet, which focuses on the History of Paris, holds three further examples of identity badges belonging to ‘chiffonnier’, dated 1852, 1855 and 1864. An itinerant profession, ragpickers had collected discarded cloth, glass, metal, bone, and other materials in order to resell them to industries for recycling for centuries. From 1828 the trade was regulated, and could operate only at night, though it was considered to be an honest, if lowly occupation. ‘A royal decree required ragpickers to wear a badge issued by the Police Department and to carry a small broom with which to “sweep up the mess after they have searched through a garbage heap” and a lantern. These badges were initially distributed to former convicts and prisoners in exchange for "information"—which did nothing to improve the reputation of the profession—then to old men and cripples, and finally to anyone who requested them, even children’ (online, Musée historique environment urbain, http://www.mheu.org/en/ragpickers/ragpicker-badge.htm).
    ‘The Paris police headquarters listed 1,841 ragpickers in 1829 and 12,000 in 1872, whereas in 1884 the ragpickers’ association counted 200,000 in the Seine department alone. However, in around 1870, cloth was replaced by wood pulp in papermaking. This meant that it was no longer part of the ragpicking trade, for which it had until then been the main staple. One decade later, for hygiene reasons, the prefect of Paris Eugène Poubelle introduced a system requiring waste to be deposited on the street in closed waste containers. As the cycle of rationalization and industrialization was completed, ragpicking was pushed out of the capitalist economy and was seen as dirty and polluting... Ragpickers were no longer necessary workers for the development of the modern city. Instead, they became folkloric, farcical, or sinister figures from an outmoded world (Caroline Ibos, Masculinity of male ragpickers and devaluing of female ragpickers in Paris (1830–1880) in Travail, genre et sociétés Volume 43, Issue 1, January 2020, pp. 31-49, translated and edited by Cadenza Academic Translations).
    ‘Although ragpickers continued their work in Paris well into the twentieth century, decrees in 1870 and 1883 attempted to limit their access to the refuse on which they made their living, spelling the beginning of the end of their profession. In the mid-1880s, their shanty towns in the heart of Paris were demolished, forcing their relocation to the industrial suburbs on the perimeter of the city, primarily the thirteenth, fourteenth, eighteenth, and twentieth arrondissements... these marginalized people were a continued source of fascination for artists throughout the mid-nineteenth century. From Honoré Daumier and Charles Baudelaire in the 1840s and ’50s, to Édouard Manet and Jean-François Raffaëlli in the 1860s and ’80s, writers, caricaturists, and painters alike thematized the lives of the lowly ragpickers’ (Claire Heidenreich, Chiffonniers in the Periphery: Émile Bernard’s Ragpickers of Clichy and Nineteenth-Century Artificial Cranial Modification, https://www.19thc-artworldwide.org/autumn19/heidenreich-on-emile-bernards-ragpickers-of-clichy). The periodical L’Histoire published the following description on April 3, 1870: [Ragpickers] represent primitive mankind in the big city, blissfully ignorant of laws, happy with nonentities, imbued with their vegetative way of life, retiring from society like a troglodyte of the caves’.

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    Bibliography: Similar examples located at the Musée Carnavalet, Histoire de Paris

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  • With six large, folding, technical lithograph plates
    CONDENSATEURS DE LUMIÈRE, by HENRY, Louis d'.
    HENRY, Louis d'.
    CONDENSATEURS DE LUMIÈRE, ou appareils à projeter la lumière basés sur les propriétés de l'ellipsoïde de révolution allongé, de l'hyperboloïde de révolution à deux nappes, du plan et de la sphère. Lille, Imprimerie L. Danel.

    1865. 8vo, pp. 153; with seven large folding lithograph plates (plate 1 duplicated presumably in error); some foxing throughout, a little more prominent in places, with some marginal dust and finger-soiling, with neat tear at upper corner of p. 141, some occasional further minor marginal nicks due to rough opening, faint ink stain affecting fore-edge of Plate V, with a small ink stain affecting fore-edge of a few leaves; uncut in the original yellow printed wrappers, head and tail of spine worn, spine with some cracking at head, but holding firm, covers soiled, extremities a little nicked and warn; a presentation copy from the author inscribed on the upper wrapper ‘A Monsieur Desains, Hommage respectieuse L. D’Henry’. First edition in…

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    1865. 8vo, pp. 153; with seven large folding lithograph plates (plate 1 duplicated presumably in error); some foxing throughout, a little more prominent in places, with some marginal dust and finger-soiling, with neat tear at upper corner of p. 141, some occasional further minor marginal nicks due to rough opening, faint ink stain affecting fore-edge of Plate V, with a small ink stain affecting fore-edge of a few leaves; uncut in the original yellow printed wrappers, head and tail of spine worn, spine with some cracking at head, but holding firm, covers soiled, extremities a little nicked and warn; a presentation copy from the author inscribed on the upper wrapper ‘A Monsieur Desains, Hommage respectieuse L. D’Henry’. First edition in book form, and a presentation copy, of this uncommon optical treatise on the construction of projection devices, by the Lille chemist and physics tutor at the Faculty of Sciences, Louis d’Henry. A detailed and technical treatise, it is accompanied by six large folding lithograph plates (the present copy in fact including an duplicate of Plate I). The work had first been published in the ‘Memoirs of the Imperial Society of Sciences, Agriculture and Arts of Lille. D’Henry published a number of scientific articles in the Memoirs, with further contributions on spectroscopy, mathematical symbology and notation, and on stenography.
    The present copy has been inscribed by the author to Monsieur Desains. Paul Desains (1817-1885) was a physicist who taught for 32 years at the Faculty of Sciences in Paris.

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  • CONGRÈS DE LA HOUILLE BLANCHE by [RENEWABLE ENERGY - HYDROELECTRIC POWER.]
    [RENEWABLE ENERGY - HYDROELECTRIC POWER.]
    CONGRÈS DE LA HOUILLE BLANCHE Grenoble - Annecy - Chamonix. 7 - 13 Septembre 1902. Compte Rendu des Travaux du Congrès, des visites industrielles et des excursions. Premier [-Deuxième] Volume. Syndicat des Propriétaires et Industrielles possédant ou exploitant des Forces Motrices Hydrauliques. Grenoble, Siège Socia: Place du Lycée, 2.

    1902. Two volumes, large 8vo; pp. 605, [1] blank, with one double-page table at p. 178 and one plate at p. 330, together with 89 text engravings and graphs; pp. 666, [2] blank, with folding chromolithograph map, a heliogravure portrait, and with 306 text engravings, graphs and half-tone images; volume one printed on different paper stock and slightly more browned, volume II on china coated paper, with faint dampstain affecting the upper margins of final 60 pages, but which has led to some adhering of paper, some light abrasions, and pp. 651-653 still stuck together at uppder margin, further occasional soiling to both volumes, otherwise clean and crisp; in the original green fine grained publisher’s cloth, upper covers lettered in…

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    1902. Two volumes, large 8vo; pp. 605, [1] blank, with one double-page table at p. 178 and one plate at p. 330, together with 89 text engravings and graphs; pp. 666, [2] blank, with folding chromolithograph map, a heliogravure portrait, and with 306 text engravings, graphs and half-tone images; volume one printed on different paper stock and slightly more browned, volume II on china coated paper, with faint dampstain affecting the upper margins of final 60 pages, but which has led to some adhering of paper, some light abrasions, and pp. 651-653 still stuck together at uppder margin, further occasional soiling to both volumes, otherwise clean and crisp; in the original green fine grained publisher’s cloth, upper covers lettered in silver, head and tail of spines a little bumped and rubbed with some minor cockling, with slight dink to upper margin of upper cover of vol II, covers a little soiled, corners bumped, book-blocks very slightly shaken due to the weight and size. First edition of this extremely comprehensive and detailed illustrated account of the first ‘Congrès de la Houille Blanche’ held in Grenoble in 1902, organised by the ‘Syndicat des propriétaires et industriels possédant ou exploitant des forces motrices hydrauliques’, discussing the technical, economical and legal issues surrounding the development, concessions, rights of use, and potential of ‘white coal’ - the metaphorical term coined in 1889 by the entrepreneur and paper-maker Aristide Bergès (1833-1904) to describe the pure energy resource of mountain rivers and glaciers which could be harnessed to create renewable ‘clean’ hydroelectric power.
    Though hydropower had long been used for grinding grain and flour, it was not until the late 19th century that it came to be used as an electricity source. In 1878 the world’s first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland by William Armstrong to power a a single arc lamp. The first Edison hydroelectric power station began operating in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the US and Canada.
    In Europe, Grenoble was to become the centre of electrification from the start of electrical power generation. In 1883 Marcel Depréz succeeded in transmitting direct current over a distance of 14km to Grenoble. The driving force however, was to be Aristide Bergés, who became the voice of the developing industry, being one of the first to adopt hydropowered electrical turbines for paper manufacture, and indeed building a dam to help expand his business. An excellent communicator, he is remembered for his famous speech given at the Paris World’s Fair in 1889, who coined the term ‘white coal’ to ‘fire the imagination and report intensely that the mountains and glaciers, which provide the driving forces, are just as valuable for their region and for the state as the coal from the depths’. He strongly believed that such technical progress should also be used for social progress, and had electricity installed in the houses of Lancey, as well as founding in 1896 the Société d'éclairage électrique du Grésivaudan which supplied low-cost electricity to the valley and supplied the tram line from Grenoble to Chapareillan. It’s potential was soon recognised and seized upon by the Grenoble authorities, both municipal, industrial, and indeed academic and legal, who began working together to further development. In 1899 the Grenoble Electrotechnical Institute was created with links to the University, and that year also saw the formation of the Société générale Force et Lumière (SGFL), which became one of the leading hydroelectric power companies. The region thus saw the creation of new professions and industries through the development of public works, the construction of dams, the rise of cement factories, the manufacture of turbines and electrical equipment, improved transportation, and the development of electrochemical and electrometallurgical industries. Such a transformation was not without controversy, many decrying the loss of traditional trades such as glove-making, and the dramatic changes to the landscape which such large scale constructions resulted in. Indeed Bergès himself faced a number of civil court challenges from aggrieved farmer who had lost land and which affected his health towards the end of his life, although his legacy lives on today, with a school and road named after him in Grenoble.
    In response to these rapid developments, a union of owners and industrialists owning or exploiting hydraulic forces was formed in 1901, and under whose auspices this first Congress was organised. From the tone of the preface, it seems likely that the present publication was done in limited numbers, with copies given primarily to delegates and other interested parties. The first volume provides details of the committee, the programme and itinerary of the Congress, an account of the plenary sessions, and transcripts of the various conference papers delivered by delegates, who counted amongst their number engineers, lawyers, academics, industrialists, and government ministers. The second volume, which is printed on better quality paper to enable the extensive inclusion of half-tone images, describes in detail the various excursions to visit sites including Lancey (the site of Bergés’ paper mill); la chute et des usines de la Société hydro-électrique de Fure et Morge; des chutes et usines de la Société des Forces motrices du Haut-Grésivaudan; the chute d’Avignonet; usines électriques de Grenoble et Voiron; Chamonix; Simplon; and electric installations at Lausanne. A Lengthy section of ‘notices d’usines’ then follows describing numerous factories and industries which are associated with and benefit from hydroelectric power.
    This was the first of three such Congress to be held, with further gatherings in 1914, and most notably perhaps, in 1925. By this time the region had grown considerably, the Congress was expanded becoming an International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism which promoted not only the benefits of hydroelectric power, but Grenoble in general.

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  • CONSIDÉRATIONS PHILOSOPHIQUES DE LA GRADATION NATURELLE DES FORMES DE L’ÊTRE, by ROBINET, Jean Baptiste René.
    ROBINET, Jean Baptiste René.
    CONSIDÉRATIONS PHILOSOPHIQUES DE LA GRADATION NATURELLE DES FORMES DE L’ÊTRE, ou les essais de la nature qui apprend a faire l’homme. A Paris, Chez Charles Saillant.

    1768. 8vo, pp. [ii], 260, [ii] blank; with woodcut printer’s device on title-page, woodcut tail-pieces, and ten engraved plates by J.V. Schley and B. De Bakker; without half-title, seemingly never bound, and without the two errata leaves found in some copies; small tear within text of K1 but without significant loss, some occasional light foxing and spotting throughout, but otherwise clean and crisp; with later faint ownership stamp of Dr Paul Maisonneuve of Angers on front free endpaper; contemporary mottled calf, spine in compartments with raised bands, decorated in gilt with red morocco label, inner hinge cracked but holding head of spine chipped with loss exposing headband, spine and joints a little rubbed, extremities bumped, corners worn; still good. First…

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    1768. 8vo, pp. [ii], 260, [ii] blank; with woodcut printer’s device on title-page, woodcut tail-pieces, and ten engraved plates by J.V. Schley and B. De Bakker; without half-title, seemingly never bound, and without the two errata leaves found in some copies; small tear within text of K1 but without significant loss, some occasional light foxing and spotting throughout, but otherwise clean and crisp; with later faint ownership stamp of Dr Paul Maisonneuve of Angers on front free endpaper; contemporary mottled calf, spine in compartments with raised bands, decorated in gilt with red morocco label, inner hinge cracked but holding head of spine chipped with loss exposing headband, spine and joints a little rubbed, extremities bumped, corners worn; still good. First edition, Paris issue of this interesting proto-evolutionary work, a follow-up to the author's four-volume treatise, ‘De la nature’ (1761-1766), and of appeal for the ten curious engraved plates, most of which are drawn and engraved by the Dutch artist Jacobus van der Schley. The present work deals ‘with mammals and objects of natural history resembling in shape human beings. Fossils, stones, mandrakes, various sea monsters, sirens etc. are described and illustrated, also the Orang Outang and the Chimpanzee. Robinet came near a real theory of evolution’ (Dawson catalogue 91, 5764).
    ‘Robinet’s work [the present book and two other books] illustrates several important elements in the scientific thinking of the second half of the eighteenth century: the unity of nature, the chain of beings, universal dynamism and sensibility, and - at this early date - vitalism. It also illustrates the role of Leibniz in the development of Enlightenment ideas on living nature’ (DSB 11: 493b).
    ‘Another issue with cancelled half title and title page was issued in Amsterdam in the same year with the slightly different title Vue philosophique de la gradation naturelle des formes de l'etre, ou Les essais de la nature qui apprend a faire l'homme’ and two leaves of advertisements at the end. Some copies of both issues have two leaves of errata headed by an apology that the author was not able to correct the proofs’ (Gaskell, 6:72). Gaskell notes that the errata leaves are lacking in many copies of both issues.

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    Bibliography: Blake p. 384; Cole 1846 (Amsterdam issue); Wellcome IV, p. 540.

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  • By a pioneer in the visual dimensions of geology
    COUPES ET VUES by DE LA BECHE, Henry Thomas.
    DE LA BECHE, Henry Thomas.
    COUPES ET VUES pour servir a l’explication des phénomènes géologiques. Avec un texte traduit de l’Anglais par H. De Collegno. Paris, Pitois-Levrautl et Cie, Libraires. Rue de la Harpe, no 81.

    1839. 4to, pp. [iv], 77. [3] blank; with 40 plates (both engraved and lithograph and printed on differing stock) of which 27 are hand-coloured and seven are folding (including the large, striking plate of Mont Blanc); small nick to fore-edge of plate 11 but without significant loss, plates a little browned due to paper quality; some occasional light foxing and browning throughout, with some occasional minor edgewear, but otherwise good; with illegible signature on upper cover and blurred ownership stamp on title-page; in contemporary printed drab boards with blue paper reback, remains of paper label on spine lettered in ms, head and tail of spine worn with loss of blue paper exposing cloth below, lower spine dampstained, covers soiled, extremities…

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    1839. 4to, pp. [iv], 77. [3] blank; with 40 plates (both engraved and lithograph and printed on differing stock) of which 27 are hand-coloured and seven are folding (including the large, striking plate of Mont Blanc); small nick to fore-edge of plate 11 but without significant loss, plates a little browned due to paper quality; some occasional light foxing and browning throughout, with some occasional minor edgewear, but otherwise good; with illegible signature on upper cover and blurred ownership stamp on title-page; in contemporary printed drab boards with blue paper reback, remains of paper label on spine lettered in ms, head and tail of spine worn with loss of blue paper exposing cloth below, lower spine dampstained, covers soiled, extremities and corners rubbed and lightly worn; a good copy. Uncommon first French edition of this detailed geological work, first published in 1830 as ‘Sections and Views, illustrative of geological phaenomena’ by one of first professional British geologists of the early 19th century, Henry Thomas De la Beche (1796-1855). A gifted draftsman, ‘De la Beche was noted for his role in pioneering the visual dimensions of geology’ (ODND), and this is never more evident than in the present work which is of particular note for the finely executed plates. Based upon his own simple pencil sketches, 27 are hand-coloured and depict a myriad of predominantly European geological features, several of which are found in Scotland. Particularly striking however, is the large folding hand-coloured depiction of Mont Blanc and surrounding peaks, as well as the line engraving of the crater of Vesuvius.
    De la Beche was born in London, went to military school, though was sent down after four years for encouraging ‘a dangerous spirit of Jacobinism’ (ibid). He joined the Geological Society of London in 1817 and travelled extensively during the 1820s through Great Britain and Europe, and also spent time on the family sugar plantation in Jamaica, and on his return published the first description of the geology of Jamaica and its first geological map. The abolition of slavery and the collapse of the sugar market led to the collapse of his Jamaican income, leaving him in financial difficulties. Seeking employment he wrote to the Board of Ordnance offering to complete the geological mapping of Devon for the government. His application was successful and was appointed Geologist to the Ordnance Trigonometrical Survey. Having completed his work in Devon, De la Beche went on to work on the geological mapping of Cornwall. In 1835 the Ordnance Geological Survey was established, and out of this grew today’s British Geological Survey. In 1837 he moved to Swansea, where he became involved in the local scientific community, carrying out further pioneering fieldwork along the Pembrokeshire coast and of the Welsh coalfields. ‘While De La Beche, over a period of nearly forty years, contributed much to the general stock of geological knowledge through his publications, his whole-hearted and determined efforts to advance the then comparatively new science of geology by every means in his power were no less important’ (DSB). Perhaps best remembered for his principal work ‘The Geological Observer’ (1851), he was also a friend and supporter of the renown fossil collector Mary Anning (1799-1847), and worked on the first descriptions of the large fossil marine reptiles, the ichthyosaurs and the plesiosaurs. His Duria antiquior, an 1830 watercolor rendering of ancient Dorset and its inhabitants sold in aid of Anning, was widely circulated in lithograph form. His archive is held at the National Museum of Wales.

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    Bibliography: Ward & Carozzi, Geology Emerging, 618 (617 first English edition); cf Challinor, The History of British Geology, p. 186; https://doi.org/10.1093/ref:odnb/1891; OCLC: 9773660.

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  • ‘A remarkable and curious production’ - chemical ‘infographics’ including a depiction of Dalton’s theory on the nature of gas
    DIAGRAMMES CHIMIQUES, by DECREMPS, Henri.
    DECREMPS, Henri.
    DIAGRAMMES CHIMIQUES, Ou Recueil de 360 Figures (sur 112 planches) Qui expliquent succinctement les expériences par l'indication des agens et des produits a coté de l'appareil, et qui rendent sensible la théorie des phénomènes, en représentant le jeu des attractions par la convergence de lignes. Ouvrage élémentaire auquel on a ajouté, pour les étranges, un essai de nomenclature chimique en six langues; et, pour les commençans, 1 un Vocabulaire contenant l'étymologie et la définition des mots techniques; 2 une Série de Tableaux synoptiques qui représentent la préparation et les parties proportionnelles des produits. A Paris, Chez Les Libraires Carilian-Goeuri... Veuve Desray..., Treuttel et Wurz..., Rey et Gravier... De L'Imprimerie de Didot le jeune...

    1823. Large 4to, pp. xlvii, [i] blank, 80; with 112 engraved plates showing 360 diagrams; title-page and final leaf quite heavily browned and dust-soiled, the whole work somewhat browned due to poor paper quality though plates generally clean and bright, with some sporadic marginal dampstaining affecting upper margins, small paper flaw on p. 50 but with no significant loss, pp. 57-76 unopened, with a number of small marginal nicks and tears throughout due to rough opening, a couple with discrete repairs; with contemporary gift inscription on inside front wrapper; uncut and partially unopened, in the original wrappers, spine expertly and sympathetically repaired, covers a little darkened and soiled, overall somewhat dog-eared but still good; housed within a modern grey solander…

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    1823. Large 4to, pp. xlvii, [i] blank, 80; with 112 engraved plates showing 360 diagrams; title-page and final leaf quite heavily browned and dust-soiled, the whole work somewhat browned due to poor paper quality though plates generally clean and bright, with some sporadic marginal dampstaining affecting upper margins, small paper flaw on p. 50 but with no significant loss, pp. 57-76 unopened, with a number of small marginal nicks and tears throughout due to rough opening, a couple with discrete repairs; with contemporary gift inscription on inside front wrapper; uncut and partially unopened, in the original wrappers, spine expertly and sympathetically repaired, covers a little darkened and soiled, overall somewhat dog-eared but still good; housed within a modern grey solander box with printed white label on spine. Uncommon first edition of this striking and wonderful example of infographics - an illustrated introduction to chemistry employing a series of 112 flow diagrams to explain chemical reactions, and described by Duveen as a 'remarkable and curious production’.
    Decremps believed that the use of diagrams to illustrate chemical processes would serve as an instructive introduction to the subject. Chemical reactions are depicted as currents, or ‘conceptual streams of chemicals’ (Greenburg, p. 484), how they split into constituent elements, and then the subsequent reactions. As a contemporary reviewer commented ‘Each of them represents an often very complicated chemical operations; agents, products of operation, theory of phenomena, play of attractions, everything is put into action. Each elementary body is represented by a strip whose line spacing is filled either by points or by horizontal, oblique or vertical hatching, a difference essential to avoid confusion; these strips intertwined in various ways have a direction determined by the role played in the operation by the element they represent. Their ends rise if the element must free itself, they lower on the contrary if the element must rush. Using these figures the author represents even the atoms invented by Dalton [plate 16] to give an idea of the composition of bodies. It assigns a form to these atoms, it groups them, it supposes them grouped in a solvent without action on them, and it indicates the change which must take place if there arises an atom of another body endowed with an affinity superior, by virtue of which it replaces the atom it has displaced’ (online translation of Ferussac, Bulletin Général et Universel, I. p. 33). Many experiments are described and illustrated and the apparatus depicted. The explanatory notes are classified into groups: affinity and attraction, caloric, gaseous compound bodies and simple solid non-metallic bodies, salifiable bases, acids and salts, metals, organic plant or animal materials. To aid accessibility and universality further, Decremps provides the nomenclature in French, English, Latin, Italian, German and Spanish, with a vocabulary containing the etymology and definition of technical words.
    Decremps (1746-1829) appears to have been a somewhat flamboyant character. Originally intending to pursue a career in the church, he turned instead to business and mathematics, and spent several years as a diplomat at the French Embassy in England. A staunch republican, his fervent views eventually led to his expulsion, and on his return to Paris he became a prominent ‘Sans-Culottes’, writing various educational texts. He is perhaps best remembered for his work ‘La Magie blance dévoilée’ (1784) and wrote a number of further works relating to magic and charlatans. This was his final work, written three years before his death in 1826.

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    Bibliography: Bolton I, p. 393; Duveen 161; Caillet 2860; Wellcome II 439; Greenburg, From Alchemy to Chemistry in Picture and Story, 2007 p. 483-486;

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  • EIGHT MONTHS WITH THE WOMEN'S ROYAL AIR FORCE by [W.W.I.] GEORGE, Getrude A.
    [W.W.I.] GEORGE, Getrude A.
    EIGHT MONTHS WITH THE WOMEN'S ROYAL AIR FORCE With a Foreword by Air Marshall Sir H. M. Tranchard, K.C.B., D.S.O. Heath Cranton Limited, 6, Fleet Lane, London, E.C. 4. [Reproduced and Printed by the Premier Engraving Co., 35 & 36, Hosier Lane, E.C.1, for Messrs. Heath Cranton, Ltd.]

    1920. 4to, pp. [64] including frontispiece; printed on china coated paper; title-page and 28 full-page photographic reproductions of chalk sketches on brown paper done by the author; some occasional light soiling, but otherwise clean and bright; in the original blue cloth backed pictorial boards, upper cover embossed and lettered in blue, with small mounted colour vignette of a saluting member of the WRAF, spine lettered in blue, head and tail slightly bumped and worn, covers slightly scuffed, extremities a little bumped and rubbed; a very good copy. First edition of this early and attractively produced account of life in the recently formed Women’s Royal Air Force, by Getrude A. George (1886-1971). Previously an art teacher before the war, what makes…

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    1920. 4to, pp. [64] including frontispiece; printed on china coated paper; title-page and 28 full-page photographic reproductions of chalk sketches on brown paper done by the author; some occasional light soiling, but otherwise clean and bright; in the original blue cloth backed pictorial boards, upper cover embossed and lettered in blue, with small mounted colour vignette of a saluting member of the WRAF, spine lettered in blue, head and tail slightly bumped and worn, covers slightly scuffed, extremities a little bumped and rubbed; a very good copy. First edition of this early and attractively produced account of life in the recently formed Women’s Royal Air Force, by Getrude A. George (1886-1971). Previously an art teacher before the war, what makes the work of particular appeal are the 28 delightful full-page illustrations by the author, reproductions of her original chalk sketches drawn on brown paper, and which evocatively capture day to day life. WRAF records show that she joined up on 29 October 1918 and that she was employed at the London Colney RAF airfield.
    George dedicates the book to ‘the girls with whom I lived in happy comradeship during my period of service, and to one WRAF officer, whose steady work and high ideals helped to form a worthy tradition in the new Force’. Certainly what comes through in the accompanying text is the great feeling of pride, adventure and esprit de corps of these women, serving alongside men for the first time. Though predominantly performing auxiliary tasks, such as cleaning, repairing aircraft, and sign-writing, George was clearly very proud of her connection with the Force.
    ‘During the First World War, members of the Women’s Royal Naval Service (WRNS) and the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) worked on air stations belonging to the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). When the decision was taken to merge the RFC and RNAS to form the Royal Air Force (RAF), concerns were raised about the loss of their specialised female workforce. This need for a separate women’s air service led to the formation of the WRAF on 1 April 1918. Personnel of the WAAC and WRNS were given the choice of transferring to the new service and over 9,000 decided to join. Civilian enrolment swelled WRAF numbers. They were dispatched to RAF bases, initially in Britain and then later in 1919 to France and Germany. In April 1920 the WRAF, a wartime force, was disbanded. In only two years, 32,000 WRAFs had proved a major asset to the RAF and paved the way for all future air service women’. (RAF Museum online).

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    Bibliography: OCLC locates copies at UCSB, the NYPL, the Hoover Institute, Southern Illinois, Cambridge, the National Library of Wales, the NLS, Oxford, and the BL.

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  • Victorian Infographics at their most vibrant
    EPITOME OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY by [EDUCATIONAL PICTURE SHEETS.] WACEY, J.
    [EDUCATIONAL PICTURE SHEETS.] WACEY, J.
    EPITOME OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY From the Creation to the Peace of 1828, divided into 21 periods. For the Use of Children. Price 1s. [offered together eleven sheets covering periods one to seven and ten to fourteen, periods one and two on one sheet]. [London] Published by J. Wacey, 4, Old Broad Street, Royal Exchange, Compton & Ritchie, Printers, Middle Street, Cloth Fair. [n.d. but ca.

    1835?-1837.]. Offered together eleven letterpress broadsides, all approximately 475 x 380mm; each containing a series of small hand-coloured wood-cut vignettes with accompanying text; some general light soiling and marginal browning, with a few marginal nicks and tears in places as would be expected, though most pronounced along the right hand margin of ‘Period 14’ with slight loss of printed border; faint signatures visible at head of periods 5, 6 and 7, possibly ‘Miss Deacon’, ‘Miss Jackson’; though only a partial set, a most attractive and vibrant example of early Victorian school teaching aids. An extremely scarce, and wonderfully vibrant partial set of this illustrated introduction to world history for children, published as a series of picture sheets priced at 1s…

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    1835?-1837.]. Offered together eleven letterpress broadsides, all approximately 475 x 380mm; each containing a series of small hand-coloured wood-cut vignettes with accompanying text; some general light soiling and marginal browning, with a few marginal nicks and tears in places as would be expected, though most pronounced along the right hand margin of ‘Period 14’ with slight loss of printed border; faint signatures visible at head of periods 5, 6 and 7, possibly ‘Miss Deacon’, ‘Miss Jackson’; though only a partial set, a most attractive and vibrant example of early Victorian school teaching aids. An extremely scarce, and wonderfully vibrant partial set of this illustrated introduction to world history for children, published as a series of picture sheets priced at 1s by J. Wacey of London. Picture sheets, by their very ephemeral nature, are scarce and to find such an extensive run is rare and we have found virtually no other examples, either individually or in a run. A contemporary advertisement in Bent’s Monthly Literary Advertiser, of October 10 1837 notes: ‘Dedicated, by permission, to the Most Noble the Marchioness of Hastings and her Children. Now publishing monthly, and to be finished in 20 Nos., price 1s each... designed to impress on the minds of children the principal contemporary events in the Empires and States of the known World, during twenty-one distinct periods... on the 1st October, the 14th Periods was published, containing Eleven coloured woodcuts, etc.’ (p. 111). A later advertisement suggests the series had been completed by 1838. ‘This is a highly instructive series of historical tables, with appropriate pictorial illustrations for young people. The design is excellent, the outline of facts selected very judicious, and the moral and religious impressions conveyed, greatly calculated to improve and elevate the youthful aspirant after sound knowledge’ (The Evangelical Magazine and Missionary Chronicle p. 332).

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    Bibliography: Not located on OCLC or on Literary Hub; We have so far located only one example of the 18th period at the V&A which covers the period from the death of Charles V of German in 1558 to the restoration of the Stuarts in England in 1660; Rarebook Hub records a run of 15 of 20 coming up for auction in 1991, in poor condition.

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  • Optical experiments explaining some phenomena of vision
    FENOMENI DELLA VISIONE by BRENTA, Luigi.
    BRENTA, Luigi.
    FENOMENI DELLA VISIONE Lettera indiritta ad un celebre Prof. di Fisica in questa città descrizione di pratici esperimenti comprovanti la forza attraente e respingente elettro-magnetica entro l’occhio, causa dei diversi fenomeni: il non incrocicchiamento de’raggi, e la nessuna dipintura degli oggetti sulla retina nè diritti nè capovolti Memoria proposta agli scienziati di tutte le colte nazioni da Luigi Brenta... Milano, coi tipi di Omobono Manini. 1838. [bound with:] Accademiche Dimostrazioni TEORICO-PRATICHE DI FISICA, di ottica, di elettricità e di elettro-magnetismo... Milano, Tipografia Manini.

    1841. Two works in one volume, 8vo; pp. 40, with woodcut title-page vignette and three folding engraved plates depicting 11 figures, plate III signed by the author at the tail, lower folds of plates all a little dust-soiled with minor repairs to folds; pp. 16; both works a little foxed, more prominent on first and last leaf of pamphlet, with lower corners nicked throughout; authorial presentation inscription at the of second title-page; in later blue wrappers. Bound together, presentation copies of two short optical treatises on vision. Of Fenomeni della visione, Becker notes: ‘The volume consists of a letter by Luigi Brenta, an optician in Milan, to an unnamed physicist, followed by the description of Brenta’s optical experiments and observations.…

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    1841. Two works in one volume, 8vo; pp. 40, with woodcut title-page vignette and three folding engraved plates depicting 11 figures, plate III signed by the author at the tail, lower folds of plates all a little dust-soiled with minor repairs to folds; pp. 16; both works a little foxed, more prominent on first and last leaf of pamphlet, with lower corners nicked throughout; authorial presentation inscription at the of second title-page; in later blue wrappers. Bound together, presentation copies of two short optical treatises on vision. Of Fenomeni della visione, Becker notes: ‘The volume consists of a letter by Luigi Brenta, an optician in Milan, to an unnamed physicist, followed by the description of Brenta’s optical experiments and observations. His investigations concern electromagnetic force in the eye, divergency of light-beams, and images on the retina. This copy of the book is bound in its original printed wrapper and was signed by the author on the bottom of the third plate’ (Becker Collection in Ophthalmology, 60.3 online catalogue).

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    Bibliography: I. Washington (Becker collection),Paris and Geneva only; II. at Turin and Paris only.

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  • A game of ‘tiddlywinks’ celebrating the first East to West Atlantic crossing
    Grand Jeu de la Puce “PARIS-NEW-YORK” by [AVIATION.]
    [AVIATION.]
    Grand Jeu de la Puce “PARIS-NEW-YORK” [n.p.], n.p. but France, and [n.d. but

    ca. 1930.]. Vertical folding chromolithograph card playing board, 520 x 220mm folding into four 130 x 220mm, together with accompanying printed rule sheet 210 x 135m, light wear to folding joints of playing board, with some minor scuffing and soiling, text leaf lightly browned with a couple of minor nicks and evidence of previous folds; as often, now without the original box, set of coloured ‘tiddlywink’ counters, & wooden bowl; still an appealing example. A vibrantly coloured ‘grand jeu de la puce’ or game of ‘tiddlywinks’, with accompanying rules, celebrating the first East to West aeronautic crossing of the Atlantic undertaken by Dieudonné Costes and Maurice Bellonte flying the ‘Point d’Interrogation’, a Brequet Super Bidon long-ranged aircraft designed specifically for…

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    ca. 1930.]. Vertical folding chromolithograph card playing board, 520 x 220mm folding into four 130 x 220mm, together with accompanying printed rule sheet 210 x 135m, light wear to folding joints of playing board, with some minor scuffing and soiling, text leaf lightly browned with a couple of minor nicks and evidence of previous folds; as often, now without the original box, set of coloured ‘tiddlywink’ counters, & wooden bowl; still an appealing example. A vibrantly coloured ‘grand jeu de la puce’ or game of ‘tiddlywinks’, with accompanying rules, celebrating the first East to West aeronautic crossing of the Atlantic undertaken by Dieudonné Costes and Maurice Bellonte flying the ‘Point d’Interrogation’, a Brequet Super Bidon long-ranged aircraft designed specifically for the attempt. The crossing took 37 hours in total, leaving from Le Bourget on September 1st 1930 and arriving at Curtiss Field in New York.
    A game for 2, 4 or 6 players, the board is marked with 12 destinations: Toulouse, Casablanca, Dakar, the Ocean, ‘Açores’, ‘Bermudes’, ‘Terre-Neuve’, Halifax, Boston, Washington and New York (numbered 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 15 and 16). Following a hopscotch style progression, players must land their counter on the chosen destination. Once at Dakar, there is a choice of two routes: one via Newfoundland and Boston, the other via Bermuda and Washington. Any player whose chip lands in the ocean is out of the race. Maximum points could be achieved by taking a direct flight from Paris to New York.
    The game was originally presented in a decorative box, and would have come with counters, and a wooden shaker - to be placed in the New York square - the players having to get the counter into the bowl.

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    View basket More details Price: £225.00